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Titanium discovery

Titanium discovery

Reverend William Gregor,1762—18172345_image_file_copy_1.jpg

In 1791, titanium was found in the form of titanium-containing minerals in Cornwall, England, and discoverer Reverend William Gregor, amateur mineralogist in England, was working for Crete, Cornwall Pastor of the parish of Creed. He found some black sand beside a stream in the neighboring Manaccan diocese, and later discovered that the sand was attracted to the magnet, realizing that the mineral (ilmenite) contained a new element . After analysis, we found that there are two kinds of metal oxide in the sand: iron oxide (the reason why sand is attracted by the magnet) and a kind of white metal oxide which he can not identify. Recognizing that this unidentified oxide contains an undiscovered metal, Gregor made the discovery of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall and the German Journal of Chemistry. At about the same time, a similar substance was made by Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, but it was not identifiable.

(Martin Heinrich Klaproth ,1743—1817)2345_image_file_copy_2.jpg

In 1795 the German chemist Klaprot discovered this oxide when analyzing the Hungarian rutile from Hungary. He advocates taking the name uranium (discovered in 1789 by Caratplot) by citing the Titanic name of the Titanic god clan in Greek mythology as titled "Titanium." Chinese according to their transliteration named titanium. When he heard about the earlier discovery by Gregor, Kraoplot made some samples of the Manacan mineral and confirmed it contained titanium.

(Matthew A. Hunter)2345_image_file_copy_3.jpg

Titanium, which Gregory and Kraplot discovered at the time, was powdered titanium dioxide instead of titanium metal. Because titanium oxide is extremely stable, and titanium metal with oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon and other direct intense combination, so it is difficult to prepare elemental titanium. Until 1910 was the first time by the American chemist Hunt TiCI reduction of sodium to obtain 99.9% purity titanium metal.

1940 Lux. Scientist W.J. Kroll Reduced TiCl4 with Magnesium to Produce Pure Titanium. Since then, the magnesium reduction method (also known as Claudel method) and the sodium reduction method (also known as Hunter method) to become an industrial method of producing sponge titanium. In 1948, the United States made 2 tons of sponge titanium by magnesium reduction and started the industrial production of titanium.